An objective analysis of the human movement can help both clinical assessment and sports performance. Kinovea is a free 2D motion analysis software that can be used to measure kinematic parameters. This low-cost technology has been used in sports sciences, as well as in the clinical and research fields. One interesting tool is that it can measure an object or person passing in front of the camera, taking into account the perspective between the camera and the recorded object.
Although it has been validated as a tool to assess time-related variables, few studies assessed its validity compared to a Gold Standard; furthermore, its reliability in different perspectives has not been previously assessed. Each frame was examined by three observers who made two attempts. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The study of kinematics is required given the need to objectify human movement in various fields, including sports management analysis, clinical research, footwear, and orthopedics [ 1 ], in order to obtain quantifiable data and to compare different subjects or different moments pre and post treatment, training, etc. One of the most rigorous and scientifically validated systems used in kinematic analysis is the three-dimensional 3D motion analysis laboratory, which provide very accurate data.
However, it involves technical difficulties in interpretation and set-up [ 2 ], and high-cost instrumentation and programs, which can limit its use in research and in clinics [ 3 ]. Prior to their standardized use to assess human gait for exampleit is important that these tools have proven to be valid and reliable. One such low-cost technology is Kinovea, a free 2D motion analysis software under GPLv2 license, created in via the non-profit collaboration of several researchers, athletes, coaches and programmers from all over the world.
It enables the analysis of distances, angles, coordinates and spatial-temporal parameters [ 6 ] frame by frame from a video recording. These measurements can be made from different perspectives, since the software carries out calibrations in non-perpendicular planes to the camera-object line analyzed.
Kinovea has been used in three main fields: sports [ 7 — 18 ], clinical analysis [ 19 — 25 ], and as a tool with which to compare the reliability of other new technologies [ 26 ]. Several AutoCAD applications have been described as tools for application in clinical and sports sciences [ 27 — 30 ] as a tool to measure distances, angles and coordinates. Kinovea is an easy-to-use, portable and free tool that can be used in real field situations; no previous experience is required to obtain accurate and reliable measurements [ 6 ].
It has previously been validated as a tool to assess time-related variables [ 6 ]. Previous studies have inconclusive results: the reliability found ranges from poor to excellent, and the importance of the set-up has been highlighted [ 7 — 931 ]. However, no analysis have been made regarding its reliability and validity in a controlled laboratory set-up and compared to AutoCAD software using a coordinates selection; furthermore, no analysis has been made regarding its reliability in measuring at different perspectives.
The Kinovea version analyzed was 0. The procedure included seven steps: 1. Design of a geometric figure; 2. Configuration and instrumentation of the recording space; 3. Image capture procedure; 4. Kinovea frame calibration; 5. Images digitization; 6. Export of data to spreadsheet; 7. Data extraction and transformation. The item to be measured using Kinovea was a purposely made geometric figure, designed using the AutoCAD program.
Based on the Helen Hayes protocol [ 32 ], a lower limb was drawn as a wire structure simulating 5 moments of the human gait cycle, and 25 markers were placed on it at visible bony prominences [ 33 ].
These markers were numbered to help to establish an order during the analysis process. Four extra markers were drawn at the edges of the geometric template, forming an x mm rectangle.
This rectangle was used as a reference to calibrate the frame with Kinovea.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again.
If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. Open the solution in VS Set the Kinovea project as startup up project. Skip to content. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.
Sign up. Video solution for sport analysis. Capture, inspect, compare, annotate and measure technical performances. C C Visual Basic. NET 4. Branch: master. Find file. Sign in Sign up. Go back. Launching Xcode If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. Latest commit.
Latest commit d0ac4ff Apr 12, NET Desktop development. On the side panel for optional components, check. NET Framework 4. You signed in with another tab or window. Reload to refresh your session. You signed out in another tab or window. Moved pipeline project up one directory.
Validity and Reliability of the Kinovea Program in Obtaining Angular and Distance Dimensions
Nov 16, Switched target framework to 3. Jul 27, Migrated ExpTreeLib to. Sep 3, Update version number. Feb 9, Daheng Imaging: Support for camera properties.It primarily targets coaches, athletes and medical experts by supporting specific functions. Users can measure line length, speed and distance.
Data can be exported to OpenOffice calc, Excel and simple text. As soon as you open Kinovea, the integrated File Explorer lets you browse your video collection visually just like any simple video editor. All the supported files are displayed as thumbnails. Bookmarks can be saved via a shortcut manager for faster look up. The build-in video controls let you focus on a particular action within the video by exploring the motion frame by frame or in slow motion.
The best part about this software is that it would play almost all native formats and codecs. Users can add enriched content to their videos by using the drawing tool, which lets them add different shapes like lines and arrows with added description to key positions.
The build-in line and chronometer tools let you measure distance and time. You can follow motion path and measure speeds by using the semi automated tracking tool. The Dual-screen mode allows you to compare two videos side by side. Dynamic comparison can be done by synchronizing on a common event. Saving back to video or multiple images, and saving the analysis data to a spreadsheet format for further processing are some exporting options available.
File explorer has two panels on the left side of the screen. Folder gives you direct view of your system explorer tree. And Videos files are shortcuts allowing you to frequently bookmark folders and files. In this tab, you can see the key image controls for your video. You can add a key image, move a drawing or image when zoomed, show the comments window, add text label, hand drawing, line or arrow, cross market, angle measure, stopwatch, grid visibility, magnifier visible and color profiles for drawing tools.Tracker Basic Measuring Tools
Click Add Key Image to add key control to the position of interest. The key images toolbar unfolds and a thumbnail of the current image will appear on the screen.
Remember, each image frame from the video can be tuned into a key image. Comments can be added one each image by clicking the comment button. To draw on an image, click any drawing tool and then click anywhere in the image. Simply a drawing is added on the image. You can always change the color and style of the drawing using right-click, move and resize it as well. You can set the working zone and control the video from this panel.
Set the selected image as the start or end of the work place environment. Selection bar, navigation cursor, markers for key images, stop watch, path tracking, synchronization point, navigation controls, loop, save a snapshot or sequence of snapshots and video.
Quickly Analyze Sports Videos With Kinovea Video Editor
To open and play videos, use the file explorer to navigate. The thumbnails panel on the right displays the files that can be opened. Simply double-click on a thumbnail to open the video in a player screen.
With the help of selection cursors set a working zone for your project.Preprintsdoi: Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Close menu. Wikify editor is a simple editor for wiki-style mark-up. The rendering of the mark-up is based on Wiky. Rendering of mathematical equations is done with MathJax. Please send us a message for support or for reporting bugs. Comments must follow the standards of professional discourse and should focus on the scientific content of the article.
Insulting or offensive language, personal attacks and off-topic remarks will not be permitted. Comments must be written in English. Preprints reserves the right to remove comments without notice. Readers who post comments are obliged to declare any competing interests, financial or otherwise. We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.
Share this article with. Create alert Email:. Load new image. Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed. Clinical rehabilitation and sports performance analysis both require the objectification of movement. This low-cost technology has been used in sports sciences, as well as clinical field and research work.Click on the Stopwatch button of the drawings tool bar : Click anywhere on the image to add the Stopwatch. The Stopwatch will be visible from this image, forward.
You can change background color and font size through the configuration dialog box. You can resize the Stopwatch label by dragging the lower right corner away or by changing the font size in the configuration dialog.
Note: The time representation depends on global configuration. Check the Preferences topic to read more about the various time representations formats. You can hide the Stopwatch after the measured event, use the Hide Stopwatch menu. The stopwatch will then be only visible between the frame you added it and this last frame. To permanently delete the Stopwatch, right-click it and use menu Delete Stopwatch menu.
When you add several Stopwatches to measure simultaneous events, it is interesting to be able to identify easily which timed value is associated with each event. A first approach is to use color coding: associate each event with a color and use it as the Stopwatch color.
You can also identify the Stopwatch using the Label property. To modify color and label, right-click the Stopwatch and use menu Configuration. As long as you do not start the counter, the Stopwatch displays zero. To measure the duration of an event: Move to the start of the event, right-click the Stopwatch and use the menu Start Stopwatch. Move to the end of the event, right-click the Stopwatch and use the menu Stop Stopwatch.
To modify color and label, right-click the Stopwatch and use menu Configuration See also: Measuring speed.The measure distance tool is a simple way of finding the distance between two or more points on a map.
Simply click once on one point, then click again on the second point. The distance should then be displayed. You can click more than two points in order to build up a continuous route. The Autopan option will move the map as you click the points. The Search For Location text box allows you to quickly get to an area you wish without spending time zooming and panning to find it. The map will then go straight to Rome. Note the "[city][comma][space][county]" format. Zoom to fit will zoom and pan the map to get the best fit of all your points on as large a zoom as possible.
Clear Map is a reset button that will clear all points and allow you to start measuring a distance again. You can edit the position of any existing points by dragging the marker when they are displayed and dropping the marker in it's new position.
If you are trying to measure the distance between two citiesthen the How far is it Between tool is probably more suitable for your needs. I like this tool. It doesn't take long to key in waypoints to work out the actual distances you've walked or ran - guy below me is just lazy. By dfsgds on 27th March Measuring distances as-the-crow-flies for walking routes in the city is thoroughly useless. On 27th March Really useful, easy to work desktop tool for measuring my daily walks -without a smart 'phone.
The maps often show me places that I didn't know of to look at next time I'm out. Today my new walk was 4. By David WYorks on 18th March This is great!
I really enjoy playing with it. I try to find the 3rd point of a triangle to have a specific location right in the centre when I have 2 known places for the other points of the triangle.
Then I go an investigate where that place is and what it looks like! I do it with places that are very far apart in the world and it's great :- Thank you for making this! By Alain on 10th February Big problem with this tool: It doesn't take into account that the earth is a globe. You can test this yourself by measuring the distance between two points on the southern border of the map the south pole.
The tool says it's several hundreds of kilometers between the points but in reality its 0. It's actually the same point, because the earth is not flat. So therefore all measurements that are not directly on the equator will be false.
By E on 6th January Andy, that feature have been removed, so it's no longer possible. By Free Map Tools on 5th December How 'bout showing the English language for all cities on the map? By geoffrey on 1st October What is the distance from Augusta, Ga. By Joe on 9th September Length measurements are done through the line drawing tool.
You can set the physical length of a visible segment by adding a line over the segment, right clicking the line and using the menu Calibrate Measure…. This effectively tells Kinovea how to relate pixels to real world units. Each line can act as your reference segment. Note: When you change the calibration of a line, all other lines on all other key images of the video are impacted.
The measurements inferred on other lines should be considered a reasonable approximation rather than very accurate. Video images are subject to several distortions coming from the camera used to record the images, most notably the Radial distortions caused by the lens. Radial distortion causes a fish-eye effect on the image and is most prominent with inexpensive devices like webcams or when a fish-eye lens is used. Radial distortion causes the line measurements to be less accurate if the reference line or measured lines are at the periphery of the image.
Simulation of the radial distortion. The Tracking tool supports the display of the overall distance tracked. Right click the path tracked and use the menu Configuration.
Then select Distance in the Measurement options. For this distance to be expressed in real world units, you must first add a line and set its real length as described in the first paragraph. You can set the physical length of a visible segment by adding a line over the segment, right clicking the line and using the menu Calibrate Measure… This effectively tells Kinovea how to relate pixels to real world units.
Simulation of the radial distortion Some guidelines to reduce accuracy errors : Lines measured must be on the same image plane. If segments are on different images of the video, the video must be fixed relative to its environment. The path will display the total distance between its start and the current point. See also: Tracking objects or body joints.